This article contains a fascinating list of home remedies used by one Confederate surgeon in lieu of manufactured pharmaceuticals.
Of that large class of medicines, so useful in surgery and so much in demand in war times, called antiseptics, most of them, I may say, have been discovered and appropriated to surgical use since our war. In fact, I had but little else at my command except the cold-water dressing for wounds. From experiment I learned to improve on the plain old method, as I think, by employing a decoction of red-oak bark added to the water, which acted as a disinfectant, and by its stimulating and astringent properties promoted the healing process. I also used a weak solution of bicarbonate of soda, which I found beneficial in the suppurative stages. When emollients were indicated, I used slippery elm and wahoo root bark, and solution of common salt often helped. In case of great pain I employed poppy heads, nightshade and stramonium [i.e., jimson weed].
From "Some Of The Drug Conditions During The War Between The States, 1861-5." A Paper read before a meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association held in Baltimore, Maryland, in August, 1898, By Joseph Jacobs, Pharmacist, Atlanta, Georgia. From an interview with an unnamed Confederate surgeon. Lots more at the link.