St. Philibert (c. 608–685) was the founder of Jumièges Abbey. His feast day is either the 20th or 22nd of August, which is the day when hazelnuts are traditionally gathered, and that might very well be the reason that hazelnuts are also called filberts.
And after this the Kynge
Edwarde came to Southamptone, and commawndede the Erle of Worcetere to
sitt and juge suche menne as were taken in the schyppes, and so xx.
persones of gentylmen and yomenne were hangede, drawne, and quartered,
and hedede; and after that thei hanged uppe by the leggys, and a stake
made scharpe at bothe endes, whereof one ende was putt in att bottokys,
and the other ende ther heddes were putt uppe one; for whiche the peple
of the londe were gretely displesyd; and evere afterwarde the Erle of
Worcestre was gretely behatede emonge the peple, for ther dysordinate
dethe that he used, contrarye to the lawe of the londe.
And after this King Edward came to Southhampton and commanded the Earl of Worcester to sit and judge such men as were taken in the ships, and so twenty persons, including gentlemen and yeomen, were hanged, drawn, and quartered, and beheaded; after that they [were] hanged up by the legs and a stake made sharp at both ends, one end of which was put in at the buttocks and the other end their heads were put upon; for which the people of the land were greatly displeased; and ever afterward the Earl of Worcester was greatly hated among the people for the "disordinate death [penalty]" that he used, contrary to the law of the land.
Tiptoft apparently learned his impalement techniques during a sojourn in Italy*, where he also acquired an education in less bloody matters and a fine collection of manuscripts.
On the readeption of Henry VI in 1470, Edward IV fled to France. Tiptoft
was unfortunately unable to escape with his king and was caught whilst
attempting to get money, taken from the Treasury, to Edward in order to
help him raise forces to regain the throne. He and a small band of his
retainers were found disguised as shepherds and taken prisoner. Brought
before John de Vere, son of the Earl of Oxford whom Tiptoft had attainted
and executed a few years earlier, he was found guilty of treason and beheaded
at the Tower of London on 18th October 1470. He was accorded an elaborate
execution, his scaffold being decked out with garlands and expensive cloths.
Even though the Lancastrians hated Tiptoft, they still held him in awe
and regarded him, rightfully, as an honourable and noble lord and dangerous
and incorruptible adversary. At his execution he asked the executioner
to take of his head with three blows for the sake of the Holy Trinity.
*It is sometimes suggested that Tiptoft got the idea for impalement from Vlad Tepes, who was active at the same time, but it is more likely that the fashion of putting your enemies on sharp sticks came from the Turks originally and filtered down to Tiptoft independently of Vlad, who unlike Tiptoft, didn't kill his victims first.
This is a photochrom picture of the Rattenfängerhaus (Rat-catcher's House) of Hameln (Hamelin), Germany -- also known as the Pied Piper's house -- as it appeared around 1898. The facade was built in 1602, but the rest of the house is much as it would have been in the middle ages. It is called the Pied Piper's house not because the Pied Piper lived there, but because there is a plaque on the corner of the building commemorating the loss of the children. It reads:
ANNO 1284 AM DAGE JOHANNIS ET PAULI WAR DER 26. JUNI - DORCH EINEN PIPER MIT ALLERLEY FARVE BEKLEDET GEWESEN CXXX KINDER VERLEDET BINNEN HAMELN GEBOREN - TO CALVARIE BI DEN KOPPEN VERLOREN.
In the year 1284 on John and Paul's Day, the 26 of June -- 130 children born in Hamelin were seduced By a piper, dressed in all kinds of colors, and lost at the place of execution near the koppen (probably a hill).
The street that runs alongside the Rat-catcher's House is called Bungelosenstrasse, meaning "Drumless Street," or the Street without Music. Tradition has it that no music has been played on that street since the children were led down it and away from the city by the piper.
Which of these medieval arrowheads do you think was intended as an "armor-piercing round"? Type A is an iron bodkin point, type B is an iron-steel composite barbed and socketed head, and type C is an iron square-sectioned quarrel.
Despite claims that bodkin and quarrel heads were suited to the attack of armour, there is no evidence that these were normally constructed of materials that would provide sufficient mechanical strength to overcome metallic plate armour. By contrast the care and expense expended on the “high-tech”, hardened composite iron/steel Type 16 [B] heads suggests that these were intended for such a purpose.
Smart move? Or should the medieval armorers have invested their steel-making money in one of the other heads?
The earliest existing account of the Pied Piper of Hamelin is found in the Lueneburg manuscript (c. 1440–50):
Anno 1284 am dage Johannis et Pauli war der 26. junii Dorch einen piper mit allerlei farve bekledet gewesen CXXX kinder verledet binnen Hamelen gebo[re]n to calvarie bi den koppen verloren
In the year of 1284, on the day of Saints John and Paul on 26 June 130 children born in Hamelin were seduced By a piper, dressed in all kinds of colors, and lost at the place of execution near the hills.
Illustration: "The oldest picture of the Pied Piper copied from the glass window of the Market Church in Hameln/Hamelin Germany (ca.1300-1633) Painting by Augustin von Moersperg (1592)." -- Wikipedia
Everybody else has a theory -- what do you think really happened?
The clip (54 mm long) resembles a pair of tweezers but instead of terminating in points the ends are flat and almost square (16 mm x 17 mm). A ring, which was probably moveable, holds the two arms of the clip together.
From the Assize of Nuisance [a sort of small claims court] February 10, 1301:
William de Béthune (Betonia) complains that the cess-pit of the privy (puteum cloace) of William de Gartone adjoins so closely his stone wall that the sewage penetrates his cellar (celarium). The def. [defendant] says that he and his ancestors have been seised of the privy in question time out of mind, and prays that the assize do nothing in prejudice of his free tenement. The pl. [plaintiff] says that long seisin contrary to the statute ought not to prejudice his case. After adjournment the assize comes upon the land on Fri. 3 Mar. 1301, and it is adjudged that within 40 days the def. remove his cess-pit 2½ ft. of masonry (de petra) from the pl.'s wall.
The notebook of Thomas Betson, a fifteenth-century monk at Syon Abbey
in Middlesex, records his joke of hiding a beetle inside a hollowed-out
apple. When the apple began to mysteriously rock back and forth people
believed it to be possessed. Other manuscripts include instructions for
more mischievous tricks, such as how to make beds itchy and meat appear
The Secretum Philosophorum, which was a kind of
fourteenth-century guide to trickery, offered a recipe for magically
transforming water into wine. The trick was to secretly drop pieces of
bread into the water, after first soaking the bread pieces in dark wine
and then drying them in the sun.
Magical defenses against trickery and dishonesty are also recorded.
For instance, a magical method for forcing someone to tell the truth
went like this: place
the heart and left foot of a toad over a sleeping person’s mouth. When
the sleeper awakes they will respond truthfully to whatever question
they are asked. Unfortunately, user feedback for this spell was not
recorded (though it sounds like something that could be usefully tried
at home against an unsuspecting spouse or sibling… or maybe not).
The illustration is from a Brown University website on jesters
Medievalists, classicists, theologians, historians -- you name it: for scholars working within a Christian cultural context, especially in the late Classical to late Medieval periods, it's almost impossible to overstate the importance of St. Augustine. We go to Augustine for the maps we need to navigate the intellectual landscape of those far off times. Now twenty-six previously undiscovered sermons of St. Augustine have been found in a library in Austria.
The Way of the Fathers quotes Constanze Witt of the Department of Classics at the University of Texas:
Concealed in a medieval parchment manuscript amongst 70 other
religious texts are ca. 26 sermons attributed to Augustine, 3 of them
on brotherly love and alms-giving. These were known previously only by
their titles cited in Possidius’ Indiculum. One sermon is on the
martyrs Perpetua and Felicitas, and another on the recently martyred
Cyprian, the latter of which condemns the copious drinking that took
place on saints’ feast days. The final sermon deals with resurrection
of the dead and biblical prophecies.
The 12th c. mss came from England(?) to Erfurt as part of the
enormous collection of more than 630 books donated by the physician and
theologue Amplonius Rating de Berka to the ‘Collegium Amplonianum’
which he founded in 1412.
For 24 amazing images of this absolutely pristine and gorgeous codex, see here.
For many modern people, Augustine is an old bugaboo who disapproved of sex after he had had his fill of it, sired a child out of wedlock, and tossed aside his mistress for a cushy job in the church. That attitude doesn't even begin to hint at the magisterial Augustine who is relied on so heavily in the study of late Classical and Medieval thought. He is a towering figure, and active scholars (which I no longer am) are surely sharpening their quills for the cornucopia of articles likely to flow from this windfall.